Are you looking for a flowering plant that is elegant, delicate, and will add some colour to your outdoor space? Look no further than Iris Ensata, a.k.a Japanese Iris!
Iris ensata, commonly known as Japanese water iris, Japanese flag, Sword-leaved iris, or Japanese iris, is a spectacular species of ornamental plants. Member of the Iridaceae family, this flower is native to various regions of Japan, Korea, China, and Russia. Despite its Asian origins, the Japanese iris is a popular and widely cultivated flowering plant appreciated by gardeners around the world.
If you want to add this beauty to your plant family, you should know that it is a bit fussy when it comes to its growing requirements. Like most Iris species, this flower needs proper sunlight, watering, soil, and spacing conditions. But this should not discourage you! Although Japanese iris is kinda picky, you will surely manage to meet its demands and make it love you. Plus, its bewitching appearance is worth all the effort!
Ready to learn more about the Japanese Iris? Keep reading our article!
About Japanese Iris
- This fabulous flower shows up in numerous natural habitats like meadows, marshes, ditches, dry sandy plains near lakes, wet grassy places, or clay-solonetz places in steppes.
- Japanese iris comes with a generous number of cultivars. These include ‘Agripinella’, ‘Alpine Majesty’, ‘Blue Spritz’, ‘Carol Johnson’, ‘Coho’, ‘Frilled Enchantment’, ‘Magic Opal’, ‘Pink Frost’, ‘Pleasant Earlybird’, ‘Queen’s Tiara’, and ‘Variegata’. Make sure you check them out!
- Many Iris ensata cultivars have gained the prestigious Award of Garden Merit. Some of these are ‘Aldridge Visitor’, ‘Alpine Majesty’, ‘Caprician Butterfly’, ‘Flying Tiger’, ‘Hue and Cry’, ‘Returning Tide’, and ‘Rose Queen’.
- The name “Japanese iris” encompasses three Iris species that are very common in Japanese gardens. The term may refer to either Iris ensata, Iris laevigata, or Iris sanguinea. However, the name is usually associated with Iris ensata.
- The leaves of this plant are a great source to produce fibre, usually a substitute for hemp. People use this fibre to make coarse cloth, ropes, baskets. The roots are also used for brooms, brushes, and other similar things.
- Japanese iris plays an important part in traditional medicine. The roots have alterative, anthelmintic, hepatic, diuretic, vermifuge, and depurative properties. Some say that they can also prevent skin roughness and ageing.
- Japanese iris is one of the most elegant and breathtaking Iris species. This plant is a wonderful candidate for several landscape decorations, such as Japanese gardens, water gardens, woodland gardens, borders, along streams or pools, mass plantings, specimen plantings, parks, or containers.
- Iris ensata will look absolutely gorgeous on their own, but companion plants can bring an extra touch of colour to your garden. The most suitable companions are Astilbes, Bee Balm, Columbine, Monkshood, Mountain Laurel, Oriental Poppy, Pieris ‘Brouwer’s Beauty’, and Creeping Jenny.
- All parts of the Japanese iris, especially the roots, are poisonous to both humans and animals. It is best to grow this flower in a spot where your curious children or pets cannot reach it. Also, it is recommended to wear protective gloves when handling these plants.
Japanese Iris Features: An Overview
- Iris ensata is a member of the Iris genus that contains about 300 species of flowering plants. This genus has some of the most superb flowers worldwide, with species like Bearded iris, Crested Iris, Dwarf iris, Iris fulva, Iris virginica, and Yellow iris.
- Japanese iris is a herbaceous perennial plant. It emerges from rhizomes and can reach from 2 to 4 feet (60-120 cm) in height and up to 2 feet (60 cm) in width.
- The foliage features dense clumps of long, linear, sword-shaped, and green leaves that can grow as long as 24 inches (60 cm). The stems that produce flowers are erect, sturdy, slightly thick, and greenish.
- Japanese iris generally blooms throughout the midsummer, from June to July. During this period, it shows up with huge, delightful, orchid-like blossoms that measure about 10 inches (30 cm) in diameter.
- The flowers of Iris ensata are broader and more flattened than other common Iris species. Most cultivars have veined petals and can exhibit various shades and mixes of white, yellow, lavender, purple, pink, magenta, and light blue.
Growing Japanese Iris
Are you concerned about how much sunlight your Japanese iris needs to receive to grow healthy and happy? Well, don’t be! As mentioned before, the fussy nature of this plant should not scare you or prevent you from bringing this amazing plant into your garden. If you live in a region with very hot summers, your Japanese iris will appreciate some afternoon shade. Other than this, you can grow this plant safely in full sunlight all year round.
Temperature-wise, the Japanese iris grows at its best in USDA zones 4 through 9. This plant does not require particular weather to thrive, usually doing well in average temperatures. The best thing about the Japanese iris, however, is its ability to tolerate winter temperatures that drop to -4 °F (-20 °C). See? A great companion to have around!
Japanese iris will look more than stunning if you prune it regularly. In fall, you should cut any dying foliage off your plant to give it a fresh style. Moreover, the plant will look even better if you remove all the old flower stems after blooming.
Planting Japanese Iris
One thing you will have to pay some extra attention to is the growing medium of Japanese iris. The roots of these plants cannot breathe if you plant them in soil that becomes too tightly packed with time. Because of this, it is super important to plant your Japanese iris in friable, loamy, and slightly acidic soils.
Japanese irises tend to spread like crazy through their underground rhizomes. This may easily lead to overcrowding, making your plants grow into each other’s space. Moreover, they may become more prone to fungal diseases like root rot. To prevent this from happening, you can transplant some of your Japanese irises into another area of your garden. Some of them can also go to pots.
If you want to grow your Japanese iris around water features, we recommend you plant it in a pot. Potted specimens usually give you more flexibility since you can move them wherever you want or where the plant needs. In case you plant your Japanese iris in a container, you can even place the container in standing water during the spring and summer months. However, make sure you remove the pot from water in autumn, plant the flower along with the pot somewhere in the garden, then bring them back in the water once the spring shows its warmth.
When it comes to fertilizing, you should know that you will have some work to do. But, really, not too much! Japanese iris is a heavy feeder that will benefit from two applications of balanced fertilizer once in spring and once more just before blooming. For optimal growth, you can also amend the soil with organic matter, such as compost, once every year in spring.
Watering Japanese Iris
In general, the amount of water your Japanese iris will need will depend directly on the region you live in and also the time of the year. During its active growing season, in spring, this plant requires more water than other regular landscape plants typically do. But if you live in a location that has cool springs, it would be best to provide it with less water than usual.
Luckily, in temperate zones, the Japanese iris will benefit from as much water as you can give it. But only in spring and summer! Make sure you check the soil of your plant regularly and spoil it with a drink once the top half of the soil feels dry to the touch. During the fall and winter, we suggest you avoid frequent watering because it can easily result in root rot. Water your Japanese iris only when the soil has dried out entirely. It is all about balance.
Propagating Japanese Iris
The easiest way to propagate your Japanese iris and fill your garden with more of them is via division. Since this plant grows and spreads vigorously, you will have plenty of propagation material from its rhizomes. And if you have too many specimens, why not gift some of them to your plant-loving family members or friends?
To propagate your Japanese iris through division, you will first have to wait for the midsummer or early autumn to come along. Once the right season is up, you can dig out your plant from the soil. Divide its rhizomes into as many sections as you wish, but make sure each part has at least one stem attached to it. After this process, you must replant the divided sections wherever you want and enjoy their independent nature from now on. That’s it, nothing too fancy!
If you were wondering whether you can grow Japanese Iris from seeds, the answer is yet. This is another effective method to fill your garden with these beautiful flowers. All you have to do is to sow the seeds at a depth of approximately 6mm in flats.
The perfect seasons to sow the seeds are autumn and winter. In order to show vigorous growth, the seeds need to be exposed to at least one month of cold weather and frost. After allowing them to be exposed to cold temperatures for a while, bring the seeds indoors. If your seedlings are strong, you can transplant them to their final location in spring. If not, you can do so in autumn. In some cases, the seeds might take longer to germinate. Do not get discouraged, all you have to do is wait patiently until your plants are ready to emerge.
It is recommended to plant your Irises at least 25 cm apart in a sunny area of your garden where they will get some shade during the afternoon. Japanese irises thrive in rich and damp soil. So, before planting them, make sure you water the soil and keep it moist for a few days. By doing so, you create the ideal marshy environment for your Irises. This applies to both garden beds and containers.
Japanese Iris Pests and Diseases
Although the Japanese iris looks very fragile, it is actually very hardy and resistant to pests. With this plant, unlike many others, you will not encounter any serious pest problems. However, on rare occasions, Japanese Irises might be affected by bacterial leaf blight, crown rot, botrytis rhizome rot, or soft rot.
Some intruders like slugs and snails may appear once in a while. If you notice any of these two on your plant, you place traps near them to get rid of them with time. Likewise, you can create a barrier to prevent future surprises from these visitors. However, most gardeners agree that a very effective way to get rid of snails and slugs is by removing them manually whenever you encounter them.
We know Japanese iris is not the most low-demanding plant out there, but it is surely one of the most marvellous you can find! After another thought, however, we think that you will spend more time choosing the ideal cultivar than you will do while growing and caring for it. You will not know until you give it a chance! And when you do, come back to us and share your experience in the comments!
Are you growing Japanes Irises in your garden? Share your experience in the comment section!